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Bologna process

The Bologna declaration (in full, Joint declaration of the European Ministers of Education convened in Bologna on 19 June 1999) is the main guiding document of the Bologna process. It was adopted by ministers of education of 29 European countries at their meeting in Bologna in 1999. It proposed a European Higher Education Area in which students and graduates could move freely between countries, using prior qualifications in one country as acceptable entry requirements for further study in another. Bosnia and Herzegovina has signed the Bologna Declaration in 2003.

The objectives set out in the Bologna Declaration are the following:

- Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees", which means that countries should adopt common terminology and standards;

- Adoption of a system essentially based on two main cycles, undergraduate and graduate. Access to the second cycle shall require successful completion of first cycle studies, lasting a minimum of three years. The degree awarded after the first cycle shall also be relevant to the European labour market as an appropriate level of qualification. The second cycle should lead to the master and/or doctorate degree as in many European countries.

- Establishment of a system of credits — such as in the ECTS system — as proper means of promoting the most widespread student mobility,

- Promotion of mobility by overcoming obstacles to the effective exercise of free movement of students, researchers, instructors and staff.

- Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance with a view to developing comparable criteria and methodologies.

- Promotion of the necessary European dimensions in higher education, particularly with regards to curricular development, inter-institutional co-operation, mobility schemes and integrated programs of study, training and research.